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Blaasontsteking kan je voorkomen

Het begint gewoonlijk met een verhoogde drang tot urineren, een treiterende buikpijn, soms bloed in de urine en soms licht verhoogde temperatuur: blaasontsteking of cystitis. Vooral vrouwen zijn er gevoelig voor, omdat hun urinebuis korter is dan bij mannen en ze doorgaans te weinig drinken, waardoor hun urineblaas niet voldoende leeg kan worden gemaakt en bacteriën de kans krijgen zich snel te vermenigvuldigen.

Ook jonge vrouwen kunnen er het slachtoffer van worden, terwijl het bij mannen vooral om een ouderdomskwaal gaat als gevolg van een vergrote prostaat waardoor urine in de blaas achter blijft. Je mag gerust stellen dat de helft van de vrouwen ooit last krijgt van blaasontsteking en het vervelende is dat de ziekte vaak terugkeert. En toch kunnen ze zichzelf preventief beschermen.

belangrijkste filters in het lichaam zijn de nieren. Samen met de urinewegen zijn ze ook de belangrijkste uitscheidingsorganen. Ze bestaan uit miljoenen filtereenheden die onzuiverheden uit het bloed halen waarna ze de gereinigde bloedvloeistof weer in de bloedbaan brengen. Naast het filteren van het bloed scheiden ze ook renine af die er voor zorgt dat een juiste water- en zouthuishouding op peil blijft. Daardoor blijven ook bloedvolume en bloeddruk op peil. Door de nieren wordt ook erythropoëtine afgescheiden, een stof die het beenmerg prikkelt tot het aanmaken van rode bloedlichaampjes. Tenslotte zorgen de nieren er ook voor dat uit de vitamine D (die via de huid uit zonlicht wordt gehaald) een stof wordt gemaakt die het lichaam aanspoort tot het opnemen van calcium uit het voedsel. Het bloed dat door de nieren moet worden gezuiverd, bereikt de nieren via twee nierslagaders, nadien via drie kleinere slagaders en tenslotte via de haarvaatjes. In die haarvaatjes begint eigenlijk al het zuiveringsproces. Slechts een gedeelte van het bloed kan hier passeren. Bloedcellen en eiwitmoleculen zijn te groot om de vaatwand te passeren, zodat ze in de bloedcirculatie blijven. De vloeistof die de vaatwand wel passeert, wordt voorurine genoemd. Per dag stroomt ongeveer 2000 liter bloed door de nieren: 1,38 liter per minuut. In die voorurine zitten erg belangrijke stoffen: glucose, aminozuren, calcium en water. Van die 180 liter voorurine wordt er ongeveer 99 percent teruggewonnen. Nadien zorgen de ureters of urineleiders voor het transport van de urine naar de blaas. Die zijn bij volwassenen ongeveer 30 cm lang. Door een knijpende beweging die ongeveer om de drie minuten plaats vindt, wordt een hoeveelheid urine naar de blaas gestuwd. Kleppen belemmeren het terugvloeien van urine vanuit de blaas in de ureters en die kan om verschillende redenen ontsteken.

Hoe werkt de blaas?

De blaas is een soort zak waarvan de wand is opgebouwd uit drie lagen. In de buitenste laag zitten veel bloedvaten. Die voorzien de middelste laag, de eigenlijke blaasspier van bloed, terwijl de binnenste laag bindweefsel is dat bekleed is met het blaasslijmvlies, een erg dikke laag als de blaas leeg is. Zet de blaas uit naarmate ze is gevuld, dan zullen de lagen oprekken en zal het slijmvlies dunner worden. Daardoor blijft de blaas waterdicht. Als ze helemaal gevuld is, kan de blaas tot boven de navel komen. De nieren werken constant, zodat de rol van de blaas als opvangreservoir erg belangrijk is. Al naargelang de leeftijd, heeft de blaas een inhoud van 200 tot 900 ml. Als de blaas nog maar 400 ml bevat, zal een volwassene al aandrang tot urineren krijgen. Rekmeters in de blaas die via het zenuwstelsel het ruggenmerg en de grote hersenen bereiken, geven aan wanneer de blaas is gevuld. De patiënt voelt aandrang tot urineren. Men kan de urinelozing bewust laten plaats vinden of nog uitstellen. Kringspieren die de urineblaas van boven naar beneden samenknijpen zorgen voor de lediging. Vanaf het tweede levensjaar krijgt het kind langzamerhand controle over die kringspieren en leert het droog te worden. De lengte van de urinebuis bij mannen is ongeveer 20 cm, bij vrouwen amper 4 cm. Bij de man loopt die urinebuis rond de prostaat. Als die prostaat gezwollen is, krijgt de urine het moeilijker uit de blaas te worden verwijderd, zodat het gemakkelijker tot ontstekingen kan komen. Omdat de urinebuis bij vrouwen erg kort is, is het ook makkelijker voor bacteriën om via de genitaliën op te klimmen naar de blaas, zodat ontsteking het gevolg is. Hormonen die door de bijnieren worden geproduceerd, zorgen voor een terugwinnen van natrium uit de urine. Bij dat proces is veel water nodig. Vandaar dat het van belang is dat de patiënt voldoende drinkt.

Preventie is belangrijk

Buikpijnen die bijzonder heftig zijn, plots opkomen en met misselijkheid gepaard gaan of met koorts, moeten zonder meer ernstig worden genomen. Er zijn verschillende oorzaken zoals bijv. appendicitis, buikvliesontsteking enz... maar ook blaasontsteking kan erg pijnlijk zijn. Pijnen die niet zo erg zijn, maar die blijven aanhouden als een treiterende tweede natuur, moeten eveneens worden geobserveerd want een blaasontsteking kan een oorzaak zijn van vage buikklachten. Soms is bloed in de urine aanwezig. Urineonderzoek bij de gynaecoloog of de uroloog maakt het meteen duidelijk. Blaasontstekingen komen vaak bij vrouwen voor, zelfs bij jonge vrouwen. Ook bij pasgehuwde koppels is het een bekend fenomeen. Tijdens de huwelijksreis is dit een vaak voorkomend verschijnsel omdat door frequent geslachtsverkeer het opklimmen van de bacteriën via de ureter naar de blaas in de hand kan worden gewerkt. Als de persoon in kwestie dan niet voldoende drinkt, wordt de blaas niet voldoende schoon gespoeld, krijgen kiemen de kans zich te ontwikkelen en komt het tot een ontsteking die heel lang kan aanslepen. Sommigen reageren zelfs niet meer op kuren met antibiotica. Dan helpt enkel nog veel drinken, kamillethee, eventueel gebruik van Kamillosan en guldenroedemiddelen zoals Orthoren van Fytobell (apotheek), rusten en warmtebehandelingen, terwijl prikkelende spijzen moeten worden vermeden. Bij blaasontsteking wordt ook homeopathisch Cantharis 30K aanbevolen en Berberis Homaccord een product van de firma Heel, ook verkrijgbaar in de apotheek. Patiënten met blaasklachten moeten meer op hun kleding letten. Ze mogen vooral geen koude voeten krijgen en moeten zich beter van de koude bodem isoleren met schoenen met dikkere zolen. Ook de nieren moeten warm worden ingepakt: geen pulls of polo’s waarbij de rug telkens bloot komt bij de minste beweging. Geen koude dranken ook, maar wel warme of lauwwarme drankjes, over de dag verdeeld, zeker anderhalve tot twee liter en als het zeer warm weer is nog meer, tot het dorstgevoel verdwenen is. Een blaasontsteking brengt sommige patiënten en zelfs sommige artsen nog in verwarring omdat de tekenen vaak lijken op die van appendicitis. Een bloed- en urineonderzoek kan hier snel opheldering brengen. Blaasontsteking kan onschuldig beginnen, maar als ze niet wordt verzorgd, kan ze naar de nieren overslaan en pijn in de rug veroorzaken. Ook kan door veelvuldige en niet verzorgde ontsteking de blaasspier verslappen en incontinentie of verlies van blaasbeheersing het gevolg zijn.

Daarom volgende preventieve maatregelen:

• Drink minstens twee tot drie liter water per dag.

• Zorg dat de blaas geregeld en compleet wordt geledigd.

• Vermijd besmetting van de ingang van de urinebuis en maak je van voor naar achteren schoon op het toilet.

• Voor de geslachtsgemeenschap kan men zich best schoon douchen en nadien helemaal de blaas ledigen.

• Gevoelige personen vermijden best prikkelende stoffen zoals te veel koffie en te veel alcohol.

Op die manier loop je veel minder kans geregeld het slachtoffer te worden van blaasontstekingen.

 

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